Daži ieteikumi anti-bēgļu valdībai

Ideja par 2 mijardu Eiro lielu Attīstības fondu ir jauks žests, bet kopējo bildi būtiski nemainīs. Ikgadējais attīstības palīdzības budžets pārsniedz 135 miljardus USD. UNOCHA, kas ir viena no ANO organizācijām ar uzdevumu nodrošināt humanitāro palīdzību krīzes valstīs šogad piedzīvo apmēram 14 miljardu USD iztrūkumu. Tie 2 miljardi EUR ir daudz, bet ne tuvu, lai fundamentāli risinātu bēgļu/ humanitārās problēmas.
Visi tie (un īpaši tie, kas pie varas), kas ir īpaši atturīgi un pret citādo un bēgļu uzņemšanu Latvijā (bez ironijas, es ļoti cenšos pieņemt arī šādu viedokli), tad nu varētu arī neatbalstīt šāda fonda izveidi, ietaupot mazliet naudas, bet godīgi būtu, ja politiskā un starptautiskās likumdošanas līmenī tad arī Latvijas valdība beidz atbalstīt iniciatīvas, kas atstāj negatīvu ietekmi uz attīstības valstīm un līdz ar to palielina migrācijas risku (jo sliktāk attīstības valstīs ies, jo vairāk cilvēku gribēs braukt uz Eiropu; tas ir kā no ābeces). Netērējot ne centa, te nu ir pāris konkrētas iniciatīvas, kur Latvija īpaši varētu nespēlēt dubultos standartus:

1. TTIP – ASV un Eiropas tirdzniecības līgums: parlamentāriešiem nacionālā un ES līmenī būtu pienākums pieprasīt neatkarīgu TTIP ietekmes uz attīstības valstīm novērtējumu; vairāki ziņojumi jau ir norādījuši uz negatīvu iekekmi, bet daudz visaptverošāks ietekmes novērtējums varētu dot skaidrāku atbildi, kalkulējot arī šos migrācijas un bēgļu pieauguma riskus un cenu. Valdībai ir jāsaņem drosme pajautāt, vai solītie, hipotētiskie labumi tiešām atsvērs to cenu, kas tiks maksāta, apmierinot mega korporāciju mega intereses;

2. Novembra beigās Parīzē notiks ļoti nozīmīga klimata konference, kur nepieciešams pieņemt ļoti būtiskus lēmumus par klimata pārmaiņu problēmu risināšanu. Ņemot vērā, kādi ir klimata pārmaiņu cēloņi un kādu lomu tieši attīstītās valstis ir spēlējušas, ietekmējot apstākļus, kas šobrīd ietekmē attīstības valstis, ir ļoti svarīgi, ka cena par šīm pārmaiņām un nepieciešamajiem risinājumiem, novēršot tālāku situācijas pasliktināšanos, tiek maksāta taisnīgi. Attīstītās valstis, kuras ir pārvietojušas lielu daļu ražošanas (kas nepieciešams, lai uzturētu bagātāko valstu patēriņa līmeni) uz nabadzīgākām valstīm, reāli esportē vides problēmas uz tām. Ir jāsaprot, ka, ja grib šādu praksi turpināt piekopt, tad tam būs dārga maksa. Attīstītajām valstīm, ieskaitot Latviju, ir jāuzņemas atbildība.

3. Iniciatīva, kas šobrīd iet (diezgan neveikli gan) caur ES gaiteņiem un varētu potenciāli pilnīgi mainīt to, kā lielās korporācijas/ multinacionālie uzņēmumi strukturējas un piespiest tos maksāt adekvātu nodokli tur, kur tiek veikta ekonomiskā aktivitāte. Oficiāli saucamā – public country-by-country reporting – likumdošanas iniciatīva, protams, saduras pret lielā biznesa intersēm un lobiju, taču pilnīga caurspīdība lielo uzņēmumu finansēs nodrošinātu to, ka tie vairs nevarētu izvairīties no nodokļu maksāšanas attīstības valstīs, izmantojot ofšorus un ļoti radošas grāmatvedības metodes. Plus, šī iniciatīva ari ES nodrošinās to, ka lielie uzņēmumi daudz taisnīgāk konkurēs ar mazajiem uzņēmumiem, kuri ierobežotas administratīvās kapacitātes dēļ nespēj tik ļoti izshēmot shēmas, lai izvairītos no nodokļiem. Arī Latvija iegūtu būtiskus papildu nodokļu ieņēmumus, ja tiktu mazinātas mahināciju iespējas, izmantojot ofšorus.

Šo sarakstu varētu paturpināt, bet ar šiem piemēriem vien jau būtu iesākumam ļoti labi. Ja Latvijas valdība ir tik ļoti pret bēgļu uzņemšanu un baidās no ekonomiskajiem migrantiem, tad lūk – lūdzu, jums ir visas iespējas izpausties starptautiskajā diplomātijā un ES koridoros, iestājoties par iniciatīvām, kas REĀLI risina migrācijas cēloņus.

Attīstības budžeta palielināšana ir svarīga bet ne panaceja. Daudz būtiskāk ir, kā šī nauda tiek tērēta (arī LV iemaksas būtu interesanti paanlizēt – cik no tā aiziet uz mērķvalstīm, un cik paliek pašā Lavijā, maksājot ekspertu algas utt).

Migrācija tāpat kā nabadzība ir strukturāla un sistēmiska problēma. Tā ka, ja mūs vairs neapmierina šīs esošās sistēmas sekas, tad ir pienācis laiks palabot fundamentālas lietas. Bet ir utopiski gribēt sistēmu, kas ir par labu attītības valstīm, un tai pašā laikā ierobežot attīstības valstu izaugsmi un iespēju nostāties uz savām kājām.

About Aylan and your 10EUR T-shirt. What this refugee crisis is really telling us

Aylan Kurdi, a 3 years old Syrian refugee boy, who was found dead on Wednesday, September 2, laying on the beach near Bodrum, in Turkey and whose picture has gone viral shocking millions of people around the world, managed in an impressively extraordinary and stark way to tell and remind the developed world what it normally prefers not to see: people – a lot of innocent men, women, children, who dream and hope for happy, fulfilling lives, just like me and you – die every day as a result of war, conflict, insecurity, drought, famine, extreme poverty.

In the 21st century, when with wealth of information we wake up and go to sleep, Western world has developed and institutionalized a high degree of self-protection and self-censorship. Warning signs such as “this article/video contains images that readers/viewers may find distressing” have been introduced and considered as a norm to prevent people from being too disturbed, provoked, upset. If we don’t see things like suffering, pain, misery, hunger or death, we don’t know about it and do not feel connected or in any way responsible for what we see.

But, Aylan’s picture did not have this warning. And he was probably also white enough.

Its bluntness hit even the biggest cynics and sceptics. Mr Cameron, British Prime Minster, who has been trying very hard to reduce the number of refugees and immigrants coming to the UK, had to acknowledge that Aylan’s picture ‘deeply moved’ him.

But, before and after Aylan there have been many more children dying like this. Right in this moment there are about 60 million refugees worldwide escaping suffering, uncertainty, hunger, poverty and death. Many of them are refugees in their own countries. About 350,000 people, most of them from Somalia fleeing conflict and drought, currently reside in Dadaab, Kenya, the world’s biggest refugee camp. Lebanon with 4 million inhabitants is giving shelter to more than 1.5 million refugees from Syria and Palestine, which means – 27% of its total population are refugees. Also, Pakistan hosts about 1.6 million Afghan refugees. And, last but not least. Turkey is now hosting about 2 million refugees – half of total Syrian refugees.

In contrast, in 2013 28 EU countries together hosted less than 500,000 refugees and the USA was the only Western country, which made the list of the top 10 refugees’ hosting countries. This year more than 370,000 refugees arrived in Europe, which is about the same size as the total population in Dadaab camp.

Though many Western people have been deeply touched by Aylan’s death and have felt compassion for all the people searching safety, equally many people and governments have expressed concerns about the massive influx of refugees with wrong skin color, religion, and ethnicity, clothing, language, work ethics and moral values.

Moreover, dramatization or even criminalization of refugees seeking escape in Europe has transformed the initial ‘refugee crisis’ into ‘Europe’s security and economic crisis’, questioning refugees’ vulnerability and safety at home and presuming that many refugees together with many more economic migrants (about 20 million non-EU migrants currently living in EU) just come to Europe because they want to live as good as Europeans.

And, here are few important questions we all need to ask:

  • why a Syrian, Sudanese or Afghan girl or boy does not deserve to live as good as a European boy or girl?
  • Let’s think further – why Syrian, Sudanese or Afghan girl CANT live as good as European girl in their home countries?
  • If they could live at home as good and safe as they can in Europe, would they leave their home country?

I will not discuss here ‘common sense’ things such as – on the basis of the international law, refugees have the right not to be penalised for illegally entering a country if they request asylum and if their safety cannot be assured in their home country. Each country can come up with their own policies and programmes to ensure adequate solutions, which meets refugees’ basic needs and takes into account host country’s context with regard to social integration, employment, social benefits, eventual repatriations etc. But, there is no question that refugees should not be given shelter. Criminalization of refugees is against any humanitarian principles and human rights.

But, there are much more fundamental things which Europeans need to understand when thinking about this migration phenomenon in a broader context and with longer-term perspective.

For centuries Europe particularly has been the lead driver of the globalization and internationalization on all levels. Europe together with the USA have been passionately spreading the uber-liberal ideology arguing that’s the magic door to wealth, wellbeing, never-ending growth etc. Moreover, especially since 1980s international trade, foreign direct investment, open societies, privatization, single markets, financialization of economy, global competitiveness and ‘race to the bottom’ have been the main tools developed and advanced by the Western countries to liberalize inter-state relations and bring the promised economic benefits.

However, as we all know, there is no such thing as free lunch. That development, high living standards and welfare, which western societies have experienced during the last decades, has a price. Somebody is paying for that.

Just stop for a moment.

Look at the t-shirt or top you are wearing, for which you probably paid 10EUR or 10GBP or even less if you bought it in Primark. Ok, some of you may have paid even 50 or 100 EUR but probably it is only because of the label or a bit better quality fabric. We probably all think, that paying double or triple price for that T-shirt would be too expensive, but from the other side – think about the person who made that 10EUR T-shirt. He might very likely be a 12 years old child working 10-14 hour long work day in a factory, which would not meet normal health and safety standards, and who gets paid few dollars a day for that. And, he does that because 1) we love ‘race to the bottom’ so therefore – he is the most competitive one selling his time and skills for the most competitive price, 2) he has essentially no other choice (his parents may not be able to send him to school) and 3) the western societies love buying things at the lowest possible price. But, we would not, of course, make those T-shirts in our own countries ourselves, because we have labour unions, labour rights, and we would not accept such a low pay as it would not allow us to normally survive and live. But, you see, for some reason we think that it is ok for that child in the developing country to do that. It is ok for our western companies to move all their production to the developing countries so they can utilize this cheap labour to satisfy us – greedy consumers who love bargains and 10EUR T-shirts.

How much of the things you wear or eat or otherwise consume are actually produced in the western country where even the lowest-paid staff could relatively well survive? Think about how much your wellbeing depends on the people who work, produce all these nice goods but still live in poverty?

(p.s. Those who love KitKat chocolate should read this article)

Where next

It is not about compassion and charity what these thousands and millions of refugees and migrants ask or deserve. Though in short term indeed they need shelter, food, safety, protection and opportunities to support themselves (and yes, this is why Europe has to demonstrate its solidarity and open its borders to those who search refuge), what is required more than ever is acknowledgment that the current economic system designed and advanced primarily by the rich countries is fundamentally reliant on poor countries and societies essentially subsidizing wealthier countries and lifestyle of Western societies via liberalized economy’s principles – race to the bottom/ competitiveness on global level, cheap labour, import of cheap raw materials, liberalization and internationalization of domestic markets, unfair and unsustainable tax system. There are more than 230 million migrants, which is more than 3% of the world’s population, who leave their home countries for better living. Nowhere near that number would have been that high if it was not for the unbalanced, unfair international economic system we have, deteriorating environmental situation and inhumane political regimes. We need to support refugees today, now, but tomorrow we need to rewrite the international rules to make them more progressive, fair and just.

Moreover, the foreign aid politics and business (135 billion USD a year) should be revamped and reorganized to ensure that it does not become as one of the cornerstones of the donor countries’ national export and foreign policy strategies. For example, USA is the biggest food aid donor, but all food has to be produced in USA. Who this food aid is helping more in the long term – American agriculture mega-businesses or developing countries? Also, UN Office for Humanitarian Affairs this year has received only 35% of the required funds to help those in need. Why we then feel surprised that certain humanitarian crises escalate to a level, which gets out of control?

It does not matter at which level – municipal, regional, national, European, international – we look, but we all know the truth – human capital will always follow resources. global wealth distributionLiberalization promotes centralization of these resources. Therefore there are only 2 options: either we accept that we need liberalization of movement of people to make it compatible with liberalization of movement of capital/ resources; or we reform our international trade/ tax/ investment laws embedding fair and just redistribution mechanisms, allowing countries around the world to develop and flourish. If we want to build walls for people, we will need walls for resources as well.

Some of the liberals would also argue that obviously many of the developing countries have failed to develop because of corruption, money laundering, waste of public funds etc. But, if you ask then Western countries to carry out progressive tax reform, which would end tax avoidance, evasion and dodging and terminate the harmful, massive network of tax havens, thus making it so much more difficult for corrupt politicians and large companies to do their dodgy things, then somehow enthusiasm to fix the problem disappears.

Maybe Aylan’s picture will become an alarm bell awakening the conscious of the Europeans to make them realize that the West is shaping both directly and indirectly the conditions how people live across the world and therefore their misery is often a consequence of our own decisions/ actions and choices. So, maybe it is guilt what we need to feel not compassion? Or if we can feel compassion for Aylan, can we also feel compassion for all those right now sewing jeans and 10EUR t-shirts we will buy tomorrow, or harvesting bananas or coffee beans, or working in horrible conditions to get those shrimps for our seafood sandwich? Jamie Oliver recently said if it was not for workers from abroad “every one of my businesses would close tomorrow”. And, how many Western businesses would close tomorrow if they could not produce their goods for cheap in China, India, Bangladesh, Ghana, Nicaragua, Mexico etc?

We need to understand that our wellbeing and our life style is largely based on the poverty, insecurity, vulnerability of other people. Even if we don’t know them and don’t see them, they are there. But you see – you never know, one day they may knock on your door because you never cared what they deserve for making your life so comfortable, so safe and so good.

ar lielgabalu pret mušām

manuprāt, šī vakardienas akcija ir Latvijas pašapziņas krīzes simptoms. Laikā, kad 370,000 latviešu dzīvo ārpus Lavijas, šo 250 bēgļu uzņemšanas epopeja ir traģikomiska. Turklāt, latviešiem kā jebkurai nācijai ir tādi vai citādi draudi un riski, bet šajā gadījumā ar lielgabalu tiek šauts mušai, kas stāv blakus zilonim, kuru neviens neredz vai negrib ieraudzīt. Zilonis, kas iemieso sevī globalizācijas procesus, post-padomiskā principa ‘nauda nesmird’ dažādākās izpausmes, ‘gāzi grīdā’ ideoloģiju, ekonomiskas/ politiskas neatkaribas zaudešanu un ilgtermiņa domāšanas trūkumu, ir tas, kas lauzīs nāciju, ja mēs ļausim tam notikt, nevis šie 250 bēgļi. Vai tad tiešām mēs esam savā (paš)apziņā jau tik mazi, ka mēs vairs pat šo ziloni nespējam saredzēt un tik vien varam, kā sacepties par šādām ‘mušām’? kļūst baismīgi un skumji.

Western hypocrisy

“European leaders and the West in general are criticising Greece for their failure to collect taxes. One of the points of our commission [Independent Commission for the Reform of International Corporate Taxation] is that the West has created a framework for global tax avoidance, but the US is opposing the creation of a UN framework and [even] discussions among all the countries to do something about it. Here you have advanced countries trying to undermine a global effort to stop tax avoidance. Can you have a better image of hypocrisy?”

Joseph Stiglitz, 13 July, 2015, Addis Ababa

emigrantu pienesums Latvijas ekonomikai

Pēdējo 10 gadu laikā ap 200,000 Latvijas iedzīvotāju ir emigrējuši, kas kopējo skaitu strauji pietuvina 400,000. Ļoti precīzi to noteikt nav iespējams, bet dazādi avoti lēš, ka tie ir ap 350 – 375 tūkstoši.

Ir ļoti populāri  runāt par aizbraucējiem kā aizbēdzējiem un ne-patriotiem, taču realitāte ir, ka šie aizbraucēji dod ļoti būtisku pienesumu Latvijas ekonomikai. Kā redzams, naudas pārvedumi ik gadu pieaug. Lai labāk saprastu šīs summas nozīmi, ir vērts pieminēt, ka 2014.gadā tie bija līdzvērtīgi 83% valsts veselības aprūpes budžetam vai 113% valsts sociālās aprūpes budžetam.

Un, es nemaz nerunāšu par uzņēmumu ienākumu nodokli, kas salīdzinājumā ar šo summu bija tikai divas trešdaļas (ap 400,000 EUR 2014.gadā).

Latvijas emigrantu naudas parvedumi

Greece – a victim of finance curse?

Those who have studied development economics will be familiar with the term ‘resource curse’ – a paradox of plenty, when countries or regions with abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes.

The recent developments in Greece reminded me of another phenomenon – finance curse – which is a story about ‘country capture’ where an oversized financial sector comes to control the politics of a finance-dependent country and to dominate and hollow out its economy.

One particular quote seems to be so timely to mention here: “Beyond a certain point, financial development is bad for an economy. Instead of supplying the oxygen that the real economy needs for healthy growth, it sucks the air out of the system and starts to slowly suffocate it.”

You can read more about finance curse here.